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Banned Mind Control Techniques Unleashed Learn the Dark Secrets of Hypnosis, Manipulation, Deception, Persuasion, Brainwashing and Human Psychology By Daniel Smith Copyright 2014 by Make Profits Easy LLC firstname.lastname@example.org Table of Contents Introduction Chapter 1: Types of Mind Control Brainwashing Hypnosis Manipulation Persuasion Deception Chapter 2: Brainwashing What is Brainwashing? Steps Used Breaking Down of Self Assault on Identity Guilt Self-betrayal Breaking Point Possibility of Salvation Leniency Compulsion to Confession Channeling of Guilt Releasing of Guilt Rebuilding of Self Harmony Final Confession and Starting Over Brainwashing as Court Defense Lee Boyd Malvo Case Common Tactics Used in Brainwashing Chapter 3: Hypnosis What is Hypnosis? Induction Suggestion Susceptibility Applications Hypnotherapy Military Applications Self-hypnosis Stage Hypnosis Types of Hypnosis Traditional Hypnosis Ericksonian Hypnosis Embedded Technique Nero-Linguistic Programming NLP Anchoring NLP Flash NLP Reframe Video Hypnosis Subliminal Hypnosis Chapter 4: Manipulation What is Manipulation? Requirements to Successfully Manipulate How to Control Victims Harriet Braiker Simon Techniques of Manipulation Blackmail Emotional Blackmail Putting Down The Other Person Lying Creating an Illusion Chapter 5: Persuasion What is Persuasion? Elements of Persuasion Modern Persuasion Methods of Persuasion Usage of Force Weapons of Influence Reciprocity Commitment and Consistency Social Proof Liking Authority Scarcity Persuasion Techniques Create a Need Appealing to Social Needs Using Loaded Images and Words Chapter 6: Deception What is Deception? Types of Deception Motives for Deception Detecting Deception Main Components of Deception Camouflage Disguise Simulation Research on Deception Social Research Psychological Research Philosophy Conclusion Introduction Mind control is an idea that has fascinated people for many years. Stories have been told by the media and in movies about groups of people who have been ; brainwashed or hypnotized into doing things that they would have never done otherwise. There are people on both sides of the issue; some believe that there is no such thing as mind control and that it is all just made up while others believe that they could be manipulated by mind control at any moment. This guidebook is meant to explain some of the different types of mind control, how they work, and whether or not they can have a daily life application. Chapter 1 starts out talking about the different types of mind control that are available and which will be discussed in more detail throughout the book. These mind control techniques involve brainwashing, hypnosis, manipulation, persuasion, and deception. This chapter is meant to give a nice introduction to each of these types of mind control in order to set the stage for the later chapters. Chapter 2 continues on with talking about brainwashing. Topics such as what brainwashing is, the steps that are used during brainwashing, how brainwashing has been used as a court defense throughout history, and some of the common tactics that can be used during the brainwashing process. Much of this chapter is devoted to discussing the different steps that are used during the brainwashing processes such as the three stages; the breaking down of the self, the possibility of salvation, and the rebuilding of the new self. Next, chapter 3 discusses the mind control technique of hypnosis. The first section spends some time talking about what hypnosis is and includes information on the induction, suggestion, and susceptibility stages. Other topics that are discussed in this chapter include the applications of hypnosis, such as hypnotherapy, and the different types of hypnosis ranging from traditional hypnosis to video hypnosis and even subliminal hypnosis. Chapter 4 changes course a little to describe some of the mind control techniques that might be occurring in daily life. While the first two techniques would require isolation of the subject and the subject to be willing, these other forms can sometimes occur without the subjects consent or even knowledge. Chapter 4 talks about the first of these which is manipulation. This chapter will spend some time discussing what manipulation is and some of the techniques that will be used in manipulation. Chapter 5 spends some time discussing the mind control technique of persuasion. It will delve into what persuasion is including the different elements of persuasion along with the methods used to persuade the subject and different persuasion techniques. Chapter 6 is the final chapter of this guidebook and will take a look at the mind control technique of deception. Deception is something that many people are familiar with although many might not recognize it as a form of mind control. In this chapter, topics about deception including what is deception, the main components of deception, and the uses of deception will be discussed. There is a lot of information provided in the world about the various forms of mind control. While some of them will require a lot of time and effort to change the mind of the subject, such as in the case of brainwashing, others will occur throughout daily life, such as with deception, manipulation or persuasion. Understanding these different forms of mind control can help to make it easier to be in control of your own mind and limit the influence that others have on your own belief systems and identity. Also by understanding these various mind control techniques you will be able to apply some of the methods. However, if you decide to take this path make sure you do so with extreme caution, because mind control if applied maliciously can be a dangerous thing and get you into serious trouble. So without further ado let’s begin and explore the fascinating topic of mind control. Chapter 1: Types of Mind Control The idea of mind control has been around for many years now. People have had both fascination and fear of what would happen if someone where able to control their minds and make them do things against their will. Conspiracy theories run abound about government officials and other people of power using their talents to control what small groups of people are doing. Even some court cases have been brought up using the excuse of brainwashing as an explanation for why they committed the crime they are accused of. Despite the dramatization of mind control that has been portrayed in the media and the movies, there is little that is known about the different types of mind control and how each of them work. This chapter will explore a little bit about the most common types of mind control as an introduction to explaining more about this interesting topic. While there are many different types of mind control that can be used to control the intended victim, there are five that are most commonly thought of. These include brainwashing, hypnosis, manipulation, persuasion, and deception. These will all be discussed below. Brainwashing Brainwashing is the first type of mind control to discuss. Brainwashing is basically the process where someone will be connived to abandon beliefs that they had in the past in order to take new ideals and values. There are a lot of ways that this can be done although not all of them will be considered bad. For example, if you are from an African country and then move to America, you will often be forced to change your values and ideals in order to fit in with the new culture and surroundings that you are in. On the other hand, those in concentration camps or when a new dictator government is taking over, they will often go through the process of brainwashing in order to convince citizens to follow along peacefully. Many people have misconceptions of what brainwashing is. Some people have more paranoid ideas about the practice including mind control devices that are sponsored by the government and that are thought to be easily turned on like a remote control. On the other side of things, there are skeptics who do not believe that brainwashing is possible at all and that anyone who claims it has happened is lying. For the most part, the practice of brainwashing will land somewhere in the middle of these two ideas. During the practice of brainwashing, the subject will be convinced to change their beliefs about something through a combination of different tactics. There is not just one approach that can be used during this process so it can be difficult to put the practice into a neat little box. For the most part, the subject will be separated from all of the things that they know. From there, they will be broken down into an emotional state that makes them vulnerable before the new concepts are introduced. As the subject absorbs this new information, they will be rewarded for expressing ideas and thoughts which go along with these new ideas. The rewarding is what will be used in order to reinforce the brainwashing that is occurring. Brainwashing is not something that is new to society. People have been using these techniques for a long time. For example, in a historical context, those who were prisoners of wars were often broken down before being persuaded to changes sides. Some of the most successful cases of these would result in the prisoner becoming a very fervent convert to the new side. These practices were very new in the beginning and would often be enforced depending on who was in charge. Over time, the term of brainwashing was developed and some more techniques were introduced in order to make the practice more universal. The newer techniques would rely on the field of psychology since many of those ideas were used to demonstrate how people might change their minds through persuasion. There are many steps that go along with the brainwashing process. It is not something that is going to just happen to you when you walk down the street and talk to someone that you have just met. First off, one of the main requirements that come with brainwashing being successful is that the subject must be kept in isolation. If the subject is able to be around other people and influences, they will learn how to think as an individual and the brainwashing will not be effective at all. Once the subject is in isolation, they will undergo a process that is meant to break down their own self. They are told that all the things they know are false and are made to feel like everything they do is wrong. After months of going through all of this, the subject will feel like they are bad and the guilt is going to overwhelm them. Once they have reached this point, the agent will start to lead them towards the new belief system and identity that is desired. The subject will be led to believe that the new choices are all their own and so it is more likely to stick. The whole process of brainwashing can take many months to even years. It is not something that is going to happen in just a conversation and for the most part it will not be able to happen outside of prison camps and a few isolated cases. Chapter 2 will go into more detail of what occurs during the three main stages of brainwashing and how the whole process occurs. For the most part, those who undergo brainwashing have done so when someone is just trying to persuade them of a new point of view. For example, if you are in an argument with a friend and they convince you that their ideas make sense, you have technically gone through brainwashing. Sure, it might not be evil and you were able to think about it all logically, but you were still convinced to change the beliefs that you held before. It is very rare that someone undergoes true brainwashing where they will have their whole value system replaced. It will usually occur during the process of coming around to a new point of view, regardless of whether the tactics used were forcible or not. Hypnosis The next type of mind control that is well-known is hypnosis. There are a lot of different definitions of what hypnosis is. According to the American Psychological Association, hypnosis is a cooperative interaction where the hypnotist will provide suggestions that the participant will respond to. Many people have become familiar with the techniques of hypnosis thanks to popular performances where participants are told to do ridiculous or unusual tasks. Another form of hypnosis that is gaining in popularity is the kind that uses this practice for its therapeutic and medical benefits, especially when it comes to the reduction of anxiety and pain. In some instances, hypnosis has been able to reduce dementia symptoms in a few patients. As you can see, there are a lot of different reasons that hypnosis that can be used. The point where it starts to become mind control is when the hypnotist is able to recommend suggestions that can be harmful or change the way that the participant acts in their surroundings. For most people, when they hear about hypnosis they think about a person on stage who is swinging a watch back and forth in order to put the participant in a trance. If you have been to a stage show for entertainment, you may have some images in your head of the ridiculous acts that the participants performed. In reality, those who are going through what is considered real hypnosis are going through a process that is very different from this image. “The hypnotist does not hypnotize the individual. Rather, the hypnotist serves as a sort of coach or tutor whose job is to help the person become hypnotized,” said John Kihlstrom. This means that the hypnotist works to get the participant into an altered state of mind so that they are more open to suggestions that are given. Many of the people who undergo hypnosis say that they are in a sleeplike trance kind of state. Despite these thoughts, while under hypnosis the participant is in a state that includes vivid fantasies, heightened suggestibility, and focused attention. This new state makes them more susceptible to the suggestions that the hypnotist will be giving to them. It is hard to detail the effects that hypnosis can have on subjects since the experiences will vary quite a bit for each person who undergoes it. Some subjects will report feeling like they are detached from the whole experience, some will feel extremely relaxed during the hypnosis, and still others will feel that the actions they are doing will occur outside of their conscious choices. On the other side of things, individuals will state that they are fully aware of their surroundings and will even be able to carry out conversations during their hypnotic state. Some experiments that have been done by Ernest Hilgard shows that hypnosis can be used in order to alter the perceptions of the subjects. The experiment conducted by Hilgard included an instruction of the subject to not feel any pain in their arm. After they were told this, the subject had their arm placed in some ice water. Those who did this experiment and were not hypnotized needed to take their arms out of the water in just a few seconds since they felt pain. Those who were hypnotized were capable of leaving their arms in the water for a few minutes without experiencing pain. While more research will need to be done, this study shows how strong mind control can be when using the technique of hypnosis. There are many different applications demonstrated through research that hypnosis can be used for including: Treating chronic pain such as that found with rheumatoid arthritis. Treating and reducing the pain that comes during childbirth. Reducing the symptoms that are associated with dementia. Some ADHD patients have seen reduction in their symptoms after using hypnotherapy. Reducing cases of vomiting and nausea in chemotherapy patients. Controlling of pain during dental procedures. Eliminating and reducing skin conditions such as psoriasis and warts. Alleviating symptoms that are associated with Irritable Bowel Syndrome. These are just a few of the uses that have become common with hypnosis. While many people are under the misconception that using hypnosis is used to control the subject and make them perform horrific acts or denounce their own beliefs, the most common uses are those for improving the health of the individuals. Most experts are in agreement that the effect of hypnosis as a form of mind control is not really a reality. While it may be possible to convince the mind to make a few changes in the habits and behavior of the subject, it is not likely that the subject will change their whole system of beliefs just through this process. Many of the people who are certified in this profession will use it to assist the subject in self-improvement and pain management rather than for trying to take over their minds. Manipulation Manipulation is another form of mind control that can be used in various ways to determine the way the individual will think. In this guidebook, manipulation will refer to psychological manipulation. This is a type of social influence that works to change the behavior or perception of others. This is done using abusive, deceptive, and underhanded tactics. This form of mind control is used to advance the interests of the one manipulating, often at the expense of others. The methods that are used are often considered deceptive, devious, abusive, and exploitative. Many people will recognize when they are being manipulated or when others are being manipulated around them, but they do not recognize this as a form of mind control. This can often be a difficult form of mind control to avoid due to the fact that the manipulation will usually occur between the subject and someone they know well. Manipulation leaves the subject feeling like they have no choice in the matter. They will have been told outright lies or half-truths and did not realize the full extent of the situation until it is too late. If they find out about the situation ahead of time, the agent will be able to blackmail and use the subject in order to get to the final goal. The subject essentially becomes stuck because the agent will have crafted everything out in such a way that they will not get in trouble, the subject can take the blame or get hurt if it comes to that, and the agent will make it to their final goal. The most difficult thing about this is that the agent is incapable of feeling the needs of their subject or any other person; they are not going to care if the subject gets harmed in the process whether it is emotional or physical harm. While the subject will be emotionally invested in the situation, the agent will be able to walk away (as long as they meet their final goal) without feeling any remorse or regret at what occurred along the way. This can be a dangerous form of mind control because the agent is going to be an expert at it, being able to blackmail, threaten, and do whatever else is necessary; at times they may even be able to turn things around so the subject feels like they are going insane. Persuasion Persuasion is another form of mind control that is similar to manipulation in that it works in order to influence the behaviors, motivations, intentions, attitudes, and beliefs of the subject. There are many different reasons that persuasion could be used in everyday life and often it is a necessary form of communication in order to get people of differing ideas on the same page. For example, in business, the process of persuasion will be used in order to change a person’s attitude toward some object, idea, or event that is going on. During the process, either written or spoken words will be used in order to convey reasoning, feelings, or information to the other person. Another time that persuasion can be used is to meet a personal gain. This would include trial advocacy, when giving a sales pitch, or during an election campaign. While none of these are considered bad or evil, they are still used in a way to influence the listener to act or think in a certain way. One interpretation of persuasion is that it uses one’s positional or personal resources to change the attitudes or behaviors of others. There are also several different types of persuasion that are known; the process of changing the beliefs or attitudes through appeals to reason and logic is known as systematic persuasion; the process where beliefs and attitudes are changed because of an appeal to emotions or habits is known as heuristic persuasion. Persuasion is a form of mind control that is used in society all of the time. When you talk to someone about politics you might try to persuade them to think the same way that you do. When you are listening to a political campaign, you are being persuaded to vote a certain way. When someone is trying to sell you a new product, there is a lot of persuasion that is going on. This form of mind control is so prevalent that most people do not even realize that it is occurring to them at all. The issue will occur when someone takes the time to persuade you into believing ideals and values that do not match up to your own system of values. There are a lot of different kinds of persuasion that are available. Not all of them have an evil intent, but all of them are going to work to get the subject to change their minds about something. When a political candidate comes on television, they are trying to get the subject, or the voter, to vote a certain way on the ballot on election day. When you see a commercial on television or online, the company who presented that advertisement is trying to get the subject to purchase that product. All of these are types of persuasion that are bent at trying to get the subject to change the way that they think. Deception Finally, deception is also considered a form of mind control because of the effect that it can have on the subject. Deception is used in order to propagate in the subject beliefs in events and things that just are not true, whether they are complete lies or just partial lies. Deception can involve a lot of different things including sleight of hand, propaganda, and dissimulation, concealment, camouflage, distraction. This form of mind control is so dangerous because the subject often does not know that any mind control is going on at all. They have been convinced that one thing is true when the complete opposite is right. This can get dangerous when the deceit is hiding information that could keep the subject safe. Often, deception is seen during relationships and will usually lead to feelings of distrust and betrayal between the two partners. When deception occurs, there has been a violation of the relational rules and can make it difficult for the partner to trust the other for a long time. It can be particularly damaging because most people are use to trusting those around them, especially relational partners and friends, and expect them to be truthful to them for the most part. When they find out that someone they are close to is deceiving them, they may have issues with trusting others and will not have the sense of security that they are used to. Deception can cause a lot of issues in a relationship or within the agent and subject. The subject will have a lot of issues trusting the agent in the future once they find out about the deception. There will be times when the deception will be done in order to help out the relationship. These would include things such as not telling a spouse when someone says something mean about them. Other times the deception is more spiteful or harmful in nature such as when the agent is hiding important information from the subject or is even deceiving in the person that they really are. No matter what type of deception is being deployed, most people agree that deception is harmful and should not be done. Chapter 2: Brainwashing This chapter is going to focus on the process of brainwashing and all the components that come with it. Through the media and the movies that are seen, many people see brainwashing as an evil practice that is done by those who are trying to corrupt, influence, and to gain power. Some who really believe in the power of brainwashing believe that people all around them are trying to control their minds and their behavior. For the most part, the process of brainwashing occurs in a much more subtle way and does not involve the sinister practices that most people associate with it. This chapter will go into a lot more detail about what brainwashing is and how it can influence the subject’s way of thinking. What is Brainwashing? Brainwashing in this guidebook will be discussed in terms of its use in psychology. In this relation, brainwashing is referred to as a method of thought reform through social influence. This kind of social influence is occurring all throughout the day to every person, regardless of whether they realize it or not. Social influence is the collection of methods that are used in order to change other people’s behaviors, beliefs, and attitudes. For example, compliance methods that are used in the workplace could technically be considered a form of brainwashing because they require you to act and think a specific way when you are on the job. Brainwashing can become more of a social issue in its most severe form because these approaches work at changing the way someone thinks without the subject consenting to it. For brainwashing to work effectively, the subject is going to need to go through a complete isolation and dependency due to its invasive influence on the subject. This is one of the reasons that many of the brainwashing cases that are known about occur in totalistic cults or prison camps. The brainwasher, or the agent, must be able to gain complete control over their subject. This means that they must control the eating habits, sleeping patterns, and fulfilling the other human needs of the subject and none of these actions can occur without the will of the agent. During this process, the agent will work to systematically break down the subject’s whole identity to basically make it not work right anymore. Once the identity is broken, the agent will work to replace it with the desired beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. The process of brainwashing is still up for debate whether or not it will work. Most psychologists hold the beliefs that it is possible to brainwash a subject as long as the right conditions are present. Even then, the whole process is not as severe as it is presented in the media. There are also different definitions of brainwashing that make it more difficult to determine the effects of brainwashing on the subject. Some of these definitions require that there must be some sort of threat to the physical body of the subject in order to be considered brainwashing. If you follow this definition, then even the practices done by many extremist cults would not be considered true brainwashing as no physical abuse occurs. Other definitions of brainwashing will rely on control and coercion without physical force in order to get the change in the beliefs of the subjects. Either way, experts believe that the effect of brainwashing, even under the ideal conditions, is only a short term occurrence. They believe that the old identity of the subject is not completely eradicated with the practice; rather, it is put into hiding and will return once the new identity is not reinforced anymore. Robert Jay Lifton came up with some interesting thoughts on brainwashing in the 1950s after he studied prisoners of the Chinese and Korean War camps. During his observations, he determined that these prisoners underwent a multistep process to brainwashing. This process began with attacks on the sense of self with the prisoner and then ended with a supposed change in beliefs of the subject. There are 10 steps that Lifton defined for the brainwashing process in the subjects that he studied. These included: 1. An assault on the identity of the subject 2. Forcing guilt on the subject 3. Forcing the subject into selfbetrayal 4. Reaching a breaking point 5. Offering the subject leniency if they change 6. Compulsion to confess 7. Channeling the guilt in the intended direction 8. Releasing the subject of supposed guilt 9. Progressing to harmony 10. The final confession before a rebirth All of these stages must take place in an area that is in complete isolation. This means that all of the normal social references that the subject is used to coming in contact with are unavailable. In addition, mind clouding techniques will be employed in order to expedite the process such as malnutrition and sleep deprivation. While this might not be true of all brainwashing cases, often there is a presence of some sort of physical harm which contributes to the target having difficulty in thinking independently and critically like they normally would. Steps Used While Lifton separated the steps of the brainwashing process into 10 steps, modern psychologists organize it into three stages in order to better understand what goes on for the subject during this process. These three stages include the breaking down of the self, introducing the idea of salvation to the subject, and the rebuilding of the self of the subject. Understanding each of these stages and the process that happens with each of them can help you to understand what is going on to the identity of the subject with this process. Breaking Down of Self The first stage of the brainwashing process is the breaking down of the self. During this process, the agent wants to break up the old identity of the subject in order to make them feel more vulnerable and open to the desired new identity. This step is necessary in order to continue on the process. The agent is not going to be very successful with their endeavors if the subject is still firmly set in their resolve and their old identity. Breaking up this identity and making the person question the things around them can make it easier to change the identity in the later steps. This is done through several steps including assault on the identity of the subject, brining on guilt, self-betrayal, and then reaching the breaking point. Assault on Identity The assault on the identity of the subject is basically the systematic attack on the subjects’ sense of self, or their ego or identity along with their core system of belief. It makes the subject question who they are by making them think that everything they have ever known is wrong. The agent will spend a great deal of time denying everything that the subject is. In prisoner camps, for example, the agent will say things like “You are not defending freedom,” “You are not a man,” and “You are not a soldier.” The subject will be under attacks like these constantly for days up to months. This is done in order to exhaust the subjects so that they become disoriented, confused, and exhausted. When the subject reaches this kind of state, their beliefs will start to seem less solid and they might start to believe the things that they are told. Guilt Once the subject has gone through the assault on their identity, they will enter the stage of guilt. The subject will be constantly told that they are bad while going through this new identity crisis that has been brought on. This is done in order to bring a large sense of guilt on to the subject. The subject will be constantly under attack for any of the things that they have done, regardless of how big or small the acts may be. The range of the attacks can vary as well; the subject could be criticized for their belief systems to the way that they dress and even because they eat too slowly. Over time, the subject is going to start to feel shame around them all of the time and they will feel that all the things they are doing are wrong. This can help to make them feel more vulnerable and likely to go along with the new identity the agent wants to produce. Self-betrayal Now that the subject has been led to believe that they are bad and that all of their actions are undesirable, the agent is going to work to force the subject to admit that they are bad. At this point, the subject is drowning in their own guilt and feeling very disoriented. Through the continuance of the mental attacks, the threat of some great physical harm, or a combination of the two, the agent will be able to force the subject to denounce his old identity. This can include a wide variety of things such as getting the subject to denounce their own peers, friends, and family who share the same belief system as them. While this process may take a while to occur, once it does, the subject will feel like he betrayed those that he feels loyal to. This will also increase the shame as well as the loss of identity that the target is already feeling, further breaking down the identity of the subject. Breaking Point By this point, the subject is feeling very broken down and disoriented. They may be asking questions such as Where am I? Who am I? and What should I do? The subject is in an identity crisis at this point and is going through some deep shame. Since they have betrayed all of the beliefs and the people that he has always known, the subject is going to go through a nervous breakdown. In psychology, this just means a collection of severe symptoms that often indicate a large number of supposed psychological disturbances. Some of the symptoms can involve general disorientation, deep depression, and uncontrolled sobbing. The subject may have the feelings of being completely lost along with having a loose grip on reality. Once the subject reaches this breaking point, they will have lost their sense of self and the agent will pretty much be able to do whatever they want with them at this point since the subject has lost their understanding of what is going on around them and who they are. Also at this point, the agent will set up the various temptations that are necessary in order to convert the subject towards a new belief system. The new system will be set up in a way to offer salvation to the subject from the misery that they are feeling. Possibility of Salvation After the agent has been effective at breaking down the self of the subject, it is time to move on to the next step. This step involves offering the subject the possibility of salvation only if they are willing to turn away from their former belief system and instead embrace the new one that is being offered. The subject is given the chance to understand what is around them, are told that they would be good again and that they would feel better if they would just follow the new desired path. There are four steps that are included in this stage of the brainwashing process; leniency, compulsion to confession, channeling of the guilt and releasing of the guilt. Leniency Leniency is the “I can help you” stage. The subject has been broken down and forced to turn away from the people and the beliefs that they have held on to for so many years. They have been told that they are bad and that everything they do is wrong. The subject is going to feel lost and all alone in the world, shameful at all of the bad things that they have done and wondering which way they can turn. When they reach this stage, the agent is able to offer them some form of release by offering to help them. This will often be in the form of a reprieve from the abuse the subject has incurred or some other small kindness. For example, the agent can offer a little extra food or a drink of water to the subject or even take a few moments to ask the subject personal questions about home and loved ones. In the subject’s current state, these small acts of kindness will seem like a big deal, resulting in the subject feeling a big sense of gratitude and relief towards the agent. Often these feelings are way out of proportion in comparison to the offering that has been made. In some instances, the subject may feel like the agent has done the act of saving their life rather than just offering a small service. This distortion of events works in the favor of the agent as the subject is now going to gain ties of loyalty with the agent rather than things of the past. Compulsion to Confession Once the agent has been able to gain the trust of their subject, they will try to get a confession out of the process. This stage is often known as the “You can help yourself.” During this stage of the brainwashing process, the subject starts to see the differences between the pain and guilt that they felt during the identity assault and the relief that they are feeling from the sudden leniency that is offered. If the brainwashing process is effective, the subject may even start to feel a desire to reciprocate some of the kindness that has been offered to them by the agent. When this occurs, the agent will be able to present the idea of confession as a possible means to relieving the subject of the pain and guilt that they are feeling. The subject will then be led through a process of confessing all of the wrongs and sins that they have done in the past. Of course, these wrongs and sins will be in relation to how they affect the new identity that is being created. For example, if the subject is a prisoner of war, this step will allow them to confess the wrongs that they did by defending freedom or fighting against the regime of the other country. Even if these are not necessarily wrongs or sins, they go against the new ideology that the regime is always right and so they must be confessed. Channeling of Guilt Once the subject enters the channeling of guilt step, they have been undergoing the assault of their self for many months. By the time the subject reaches this point in the brainwashing process, they are able to feel the guilt and the shame that has been put on them, but it has pretty much lost its meaning. They are not able to tell you exactly what they have done wrong to make them feel this way; they just know that they are wrong. The agent will be able to use the blank slate of the subject in order to explain why they are in the pain that they are feeling. The agent will be able to attach the sense of guilt that the subject is feeling to whatever they want. If the agent is trying to replace a system of beliefs, they will take the old system and convince the subject that those beliefs are what are making them feel the guilt. This is the stage where the contract between the old beliefs and the new beliefs are established; basically, the old belief system has been established to correspond with the psychological agony that the subject has been feeling while the new belief system has been established to correspond with the ability to escape that agony. The choice will be the subjects’, but it is pretty easy to see that they would choose the new system in order to start feeling better. Releasing of Guilt In this step, the subject has come to realize that their old values and beliefs are causing them pain. By this time they are worn down and tired of feeling the guilt and shame that has been put on them for many months. They start to realize that it is not necessarily something that they have done that makes them feel this way; rather, it is their beliefs that are causing the guilt. The embattled subject is able to feel some relief from the fact that there is something that they can do about the guilt. They will also feel relieved because they now have come to the understanding that they are not the bad person, rather it is the people that they have been around and their belief system that is the true culprit that is causing the malaise which is something that they can fix in order to become good again. The subject has learned that they have a means of escape simply by escaping the wrong belief system that they have held and embracing the new one that is being offered. All that the subject will have to do in order to release the guilt that they are feeling is to denounce the institutions and people that are associated with the old belief system and then they will be released from the guilt. The subject now has some control over this stage. They will be able to realize that the release of guilt is up to them completely. All the subject will need to do for this stage in order to be released from the wrongness is to confess to any of the acts they have committed that are associated with the old belief system. Once the full confession is done, the subject will have completed the full psychological rejection of their former identity. The agent will need to step in at this point in order to offer a new identity to the subject and help them to rebuild their identity into the desired one. Rebuilding of Self By this step, the subject has gone through a lot of steps and emotional turmoil. They have been put through an ordeal that is meant to strip them of their old identity, told that they are bad and need to be fixed, and slowly come to the realization that their belief system is the cause of their wrongness and that it needs to be changed. Once all of this has been reached, the subject is going to need to learn how to rebuild their self, with the help of the agent. This stage allows the agent the freedom to implant the ideas of the new system since the subject is a clean slate and very eager to learn how to be and feel better. There are two steps that are seen during this stage including harmony and the final confession before starting over. Harmony The agent will use this step in order to convince the subject that it is their choice to make a change. They might tell the subject that they have the choice to choose what is good and make a change that will help them to feel better. The agent will then introduce the new belief system and present it in a way that makes it the good or the right choice. During this stage, the agent will stop the abuse and instead make a point of offering the subject mental calm and physical comfort. The point of doing this is to align the old beliefs with the pain and suffering while aligning the new beliefs with happiness and relief. This stage is set up so that the subject is given the choice of which road to take, even though it really is not up to them. The subject must use this stage to choose between the old beliefs and the new beliefs, effectively determining how they are going to feel for the rest of their lives. By this point, the subject has already gone through the process of denouncing their old beliefs due to the leniency and torment that they have gone through. Because of this, it is fairly likely that they are going to make the choice for the new system of belief in order to relieve their guilt. The new identity that has been presented is desirable and safe because it is completely different than the old identity that led to the breakdown in earlier steps. Using logic and considering the state of mind that the subject is in, it is easier to see that the only identity that the subject is going to choose for their own peace of mind and safety is the new one. Final Confession and Starting Over Even though the choice is really not theirs at all, the agent has strategically worked the whole time to lead the subject to feeling like they have the free will to choose the new identity. If the brainwashing process is done correctly, the subject will think logically about the new choices and determine that the best one is to take up the new identity. They have been conditioned to think this way and in their new state of mind, it is the one that makes the most sense. There are no other choices; choosing the new identity allows them to be relieved from the guilt that they feel and leads to happiness while choosing the old identity leads to pain and guilt. If for some reason the subject did deny the new identity, there would be a backtracking in the whole brainwashing process and they would be forced to undergo it all again in order to end up with the desired results. During this stage of the process, the subject gets to decide that they will choose good, which means that they get to choose to go with the new identity. When the subject contrasts the agony and pain of their old identity with the peacefulness that comes with the new, they are going to choose the new identity. This new identity is like a form of salvation. It is the thing that helps them to feel good and not have to deal with guilt and unhappiness anymore. As this stage completes, the subject is going to reject their old identity and will go through a process of pledging allegiance to their new one, knowing that it is going to work at making their life better. Many times, there are ceremonies and rituals that occur during this final stage. The conversion from the old identity to the new identity is a big deal since much time and energy has been used on both sides. During these ceremonies, the subject will be inducted into the new community and embraced with the new identity. For some brainwashing victims there is the feeling of rebirth during this period. You are allowed to embrace your new identity and are welcomed with open arms into the new community that is now your own. Instead of being isolated and alone, you have many new friends and community members on your side. Instead of feeling the guilt and pain that has plagued you for many months you are going to feel happiness and peacefulness with everything that is around you. The new identity is now yours and the brainwashing transformation is complete. This process can take place over a period of many months to even years. Most people are set in their identity and the beliefs that they have; it is not possible to change all of this in just a few days unless the person was already willing to change and that would make the brainwashing techniques unnecessary. Isolation would also be necessary because outside influences will prevent the subject from relying on the agent during this process. This is why most of the brainwashing cases occur in prison camps and other isolated instances; the vast majority of people will not have the chance of encountering brainwashing due to the fact that they are always surrounded by people and technology that would hinder the whole brainwashing process. Once the person is in isolation, the process takes a long time due to the many steps that must be taken in order to change the ideals held by the individual for many years so that they will embrace the new identity as their own while also feeling that the choice has always been theirs. As can be seen, there are quite a few steps that must be taken in order to go through the brainwashing process. It is not something that is going to happen just by running into someone on the street and exchanging a few words. It requires the isolation and time to convince the subject that everything they know is wrong and that they are a bad person. It then continues on with trying to force out a confession that the subject is bad and that they want to renounce all of the things that they have done that are bad due to their old identity. Finally, the subject will be led in the direction of believing that they can change for the better if they just abandon their old ideas and instead embrace the peacefulness and rightness that comes with the new identity that is presented. All of these steps must occur for the brainwashing to be effective and the new identity to be put in place. Brainwashing as Court Defense Throughout history, people have been claiming that they committed terrible wrongs because they had been brainwashed. It was an excuse that many would claim hoping to save their own lives or to get away with a mass murder or some other crime against humanity. It might even be something as simple as stealing from another person. Whatever the action was, brainwashing was an easy defense because it took the responsibility of the action away from the accused and it was difficult to prove whether someone had been brainwashed or not. Whether brainwashing pleas can be used as a defense in the courtroom is up to some debate. Many experts feel that by allowing this defense into the courtroom, the courts would become overwhelmed with false claims of brainwashing and the resources for proving or disproving this defense would be more than the courts could handle. Despite this, there have been some cases brought to court that may show the validity of brainwashing as a defense for crimes committed. The first example of this happened in 1976. Patty Hearst, the heiress to a large publishing fortune, used the defense of brainwashing when she stood trial for a bank robbery. In the early 1970s, Hearst was kidnapped by the SLA, the Symbionese Liberation Army, and ended up joining this group. During the trial, Hearst reported that she had been locked up in a closet for at least a few days after she had been kidnapped. While in the closet, Hearst stated that she was afraid of her life, brutalized, tired, and was not fed while members of the SLA bombarded her with their ideology against a capitalist country. Within the two months of her kidnapping, Patty had changed her name while also issuing a statement saying that her family were “pigHearsts” and then appeared on the security tape of a bank robbing it along with those who had kidnapped her. In 1976, Patty Hearst stood trial for this bank robbery and was defended by F. Lee Bailey. In the defense, it was claimed that Hearst had been brainwashed by the SLA. This brainwashing had forced Hearst to commit a crime that she would have never done under any other circumstance. In the mental state that she was under with the brainwashing, she was not able to tell the difference between right and wrong and therefore should not be found guilty of the bank robbery. The court did not agree with this analysis and instead found her guilty and placed her in prison for seven years. Just a few years later, President Carter commuted her sentence so she only ended up spending two years in total in prison. Lee Boyd Malvo Case Another well-known brainwashing defense is the Lee Boyd Malvo case. This case used the defense of insanity by brainwashing and it ended up in the courtrooms about 30 years after the Patty Hearst case. In 2002, Lee Boyd Malvo was on trial for the role that he played in the sniper attacks that occurred around and in Washington D.C. Malvo, who was 17 at the time, and John Allen Muhammad, 42, ended up killing 10 people and wounding three during the killing spree. The defense that was used for this case was that the teenage Malvo had been brainwashed by Muhammad so that he would commit the crimes. Just like in the Hearst case, the defense claimed that Malvo would not have committed these crimes if he had not been under the control of Muhammad. According to the background story used by the defense, Malvo had been abandoned by his mother on the island of Antigua in the Caribbean when he was 15 years old. Muhammad met the boy and brought him into the United States in 2001. Muhammad was an army veteran at the time and worked to fill the head of the teen with visions of a race war that was impending. To that end, Malvo was trained to be an expert marksman. In addition to sharing these ideas with Malvo, Muhammad isolated Malvo from others while being steeped in the vitriolic and idiosyncratic brand of Islam that Muhammad followed along with a strict exercise regimen and diet. All of this is believed to have been a part of the brainwashing process on the young Malvo. The defense argued that because of his time spent with Muhammad, Malvo had been brainwashed and because of this, he was not capable of telling what was right from what was wrong. Despite the efforts of the defense, Malvo was found to be guilty and had a sentence of life in prison without any chance of parole. In a separate trial, Muhammad was sentenced to the death penalty. So far, it does not seem like brainwashing will gain much ground as a form of defense in the courtroom. To start with, it is much too difficult to prove that a defendant has been brainwashed in the first place. Next, it is very unlikely that someone has been brainwashed and instead the defense is just using it as a means to get a lighter sentence or the actions of their client forgiven. In addition, many juries seem to find the idea of brainwashing completely ridiculous. Overall, this defense will probably not see much strength growing in the courtroom. Common Tactics Used in Brainwashing Brainwashing is not always as intense as what has been described so far in this chapter. The methods described are used for “true brainwashing” and are rarely done to the subject. There are many other types of brainwashing that actually happen on a day to day basis. They might not work to make you completely give up your old identity in favor of a new one, but they do work to help shift your thoughts and ideas on what is going on around you. This section is going to focus on some of the tactics that are often used during the brainwashing process, regardless of whether it is true brainwashing or not. Hypnosis-hypnosis, which will be discussed in more detail in the next chapter, is a form of brainwashing in some circumstances. Hypnosis is basically the induction of a high state of suggestibility. This state is often disguised thinly as meditation or relaxation. During the process of hypnosis, the agent is able to suggest things to the subject in hopes of getting them to act or react in a certain way. Many people are familiar with hypnosis from the stage shows they have seen. It is also often used as a way to improve health. Peer Pressure-everyone has an innate need to belong. This could be with a particular group, their family, friends, and the community. With the peer pressure tactic there is a suppression of the doubt that the subject feels along with getting rid of their resistance to new ideas by exploiting this strong need to belong. If done right, the subject may be more willing to try out new things, be less shy around new people, and may have an easier time making new friends. Love Bombing—the sense of family is very strong in people. This is the group that you were born into and that you have supposedly been around for your whole life. They know you better than anyone and those who have missed out on this kind of relationship may find that they are feeling alone and unwanted. With love bombing, the agent is able to create a sense of the family by the use of emotional bonding, feeling and through sharing and physical touch. This allows the agent and the subject to bond in a familial way, making it easier to trade in the old identity for the new one. Rejecting Old Values—as mentioned a little bit earlier in this chapter, the agent is working to convince the subject to denounce all of their own values. This process is accelerated through the process of intimidation, physical threat, and other means. At the end, the subject will denounce the values and beliefs that they once held close and will begin to accept the new lifestyle that is presented to them by the agent. Confusing Doctrine—in this tactic, there will be an encouragement to blindly accept the new identity while rejecting other logic that the subject will have. In order to do this, the agent will go through a complex set of lectures about a doctrine that is going to be incomprehensible. The subject will learn to blindly trust what the agent is saying through this process, whether it is about the doctrine or about the new identity that is being formed. Metacommunication—this tactic is employed when the agent works to implant subliminal messages into the mind of the subject. This will be done when the agent stresses certain words or phrases that are key to the new identity. These phrases and key words will be implanted into confusing long lectures that the subject will be forced to sit through. No Privacy—privacy is a privilege that many subjects will lose until they have converted over to the new identity that is provided to them. Not only is this taken away as a method to make the guilt and wrongness more apparent to the subject, but it also takes away the ability the subject has to logically evaluate the things that they are being told. If the subject is allowed to have privacy, they will have time to privately contemplate the information they are given and may discover that it is untrue or does not hold up to what they already believe. Taking away this privacy means that the agent or agents are always around and the subject is always being led to the new identity. Disinhibition—during this tactic, the subject is encouraged by the agent to give childlike obedience. This makes it easier for the agent to shape the mind of the subject. Unbending Rules—the rules that are put in place by the agent are often strict and will never be changed. These rules are meant to make it difficult for the subject to think and act on their own; rather, they will spend their time doing exactly what they are told to do by the agent. There are many different rules that could fit into this category such as the rules that will be followed for the disorientation and regression process all the way to how the subject is allowed to use medications, take bathroom breaks, and eat meals. These rules are put in place in order to completely control the subject during the brainwashing process. Verbal Abuse—verbal abuse is one of the tactics that is used during the breaking down stage. Often the subject will become desensitized when they are bombarded with abusive and foul language all of the time. At times, physical abuse may supplement or replace verbal abuse. Sleep Deprivation—when a person is not getting the amount of sleep that they require they will often become vulnerable and disoriented. This can help create the ideal environment that the agent is looking for during the breaking down and confession stages of the brainwashing process. In addition, many times the subject will be required to do prolonged physical and mental activities on top of the inadequate sleep in order to hurry the process even more. Dress Codes—enforcing a dress code further removes any individuality that the subject may have as well as the choice they are used to of picking out their own clothes. Often during the brainwashing process, the subject will be demanded to wear the dress code held by the rest of the group. Chanting—the agent will work to eliminate any non-cult ideas that may be present in the mind of the subject. One way to accomplish this is through chanting or repetition of the phrases that are used by those who follow the new identity. Confession—confession is deeply encouraged in those who are transforming from their old identity to the new identity. During this process, the subject will destruct their own individual ego by confessing all of their innermost feelings of doubt and personal weaknesses to the agent. Once they are able to let go of these things, the introduction of the new identity is able to occur. Financial Commitment—in some cases, there will be financial contributions which must be met. This can help the agent in several ways. First, the financial commitment allows an increased dependence of the subject on the group because the subject may be burning bridges to their past. They will donate different assets, whether it is their car, house, money, or some other financial contribution in the hopes that they will be able to get over their shame and guilt. Now they are financially attached to the new identity. In addition, the agent will be able to use these financial contributions to further their own needs. Pointing the Finger—when you are able to point the finger at someone else, you will feel a sense of righteousness. This is your way of telling the world that you are good simply by pointing out some of the shortcomings that are going on in the world. The agent may point out all of the killing, racism, and greed that are in the world before contrasting it to the good of the new identity that the subject is being led to. Isolation—if you are isolated from everything that is around you, it becomes difficult to get outside opinions that might change your mind. This is what the agent will strive for because they do not want all of their work to go away. Those who are being brainwashed will be separated from society, friends, family, and any other rational references that would change their way of thinking. Controlled Approval—the agent is going to work in order to maintain the confusion and vulnerability of the subject during the breaking down period. One method of doing this is through controlled approval. The agent will alternately punish and reward similar actions, making it difficult for the subject to know what is right and what is wrong. Change of Diet—changing the amount of food the subject is allowed to consume is another tactic used to create disorientation while increasing the susceptibility of the subject to emotional arousal. When the agent dramatically decreases the amount of food that the subject is allowed to consume, they are depriving the subject’s nervous system of the nutrients that are necessary to thrive. Adding drugs to the mix may also be added into this category. Games—games are sometimes used in order to induce more dependence on the group. Games will be introduced and most of them will have really obscure rules that the subject will not understand. In some instances, the subject will not be told the rules and they must figure them out or the rules will constantly change. This tactic allows the agent to gain more control. No Questions—during the brainwashing process, the subject is not allowed to ask questions. Questions promote individual thinking and this is dangerous to the brainwashing practice. When no questions are allowed, it helps the agent accomplish an automatic acceptance from the subject to the new identity. Guilt—the subject has been told that they are bad and that everything they do is bad. Guilt is a common tactic that is used by the agent in order to make the subject question their beliefs and what is going on around them. The sins of the subject’s former lifestyle will be exaggerated in order to bring about the guilt and reinforce the need of salvation in the subject. Fear—fear is a powerful motivator and can accomplish a lot more than the other tactics that have been listed. Agents may use fear in order to maintain the obedience and loyalty that are desired to the group. To do this, the agent may threaten the limb, life, or soul of the subject for anything that is against the new identity that is being presented. These are just a few of the tactics that can be used during the brainwashing process. The point of each of them is to instill the idea that the old identity of the subject is wrong and convince them that the new identity is preferable. There are many different ways that this can be done and many will be more effective when used as a combination. While it is possible that brainwashing can alter the way that someone thinks and act, most experts believe that true brainwashing is exaggerated and cannot be done. While little examples of brainwashing may occur in everyday life, the majority of people will not find that their whole belief systems have been changed through this process. Chapter 3: Hypnosis While brainwashing is a well-known form of mind control that many people have heard of, hypnosis is also an important type that should be considered. For the most part, those who are familiar with hypnosis know about it from watching stage shows of participants doing ridiculous acts. While this is a type of hypnosis, there is a lot more to it. This chapter is going to concentrate more on hypnosis as a form of mind control. What is Hypnosis? To start with is the definition of hypnosis. According to experts, hypnosis is considered a state of consciousness that involves the focused attention along with the reduced peripheral awareness that is characterized by the participant’s increased capacity to respond to suggestions that are given. This means that the participant is going to enter a different state of mind and will be much more susceptible to following the suggestions that are given by the hypnotist. It is widely recognized that there are two theory groups that help to describe what is happening during the hypnosis period. The first one is known as the altered state theory. Those who follow this theory see that hypnosis is like a trance or a state of mind that is altered were the participant will see that their awareness is somewhat different from what they would notice in their ordinary conscious state. The other theory is the non-state theories. Those who follow this theory do not think that those who undergo hypnosis are entering into different states of consciousness. Rather, the participant is working with the hypnotist to enter a type of imaginative role enactment. While in hypnosis, the participant is thought to have more concentration and focus that couples together with a new ability to intensely concentrate on a specific memory or thought. During this process, the participant is also able to block out other sources that might be distracting to them. The hypnotized subjects are thought to show a heightened ability to respond to suggestions that are given to them, especially when these suggestions come from the hypnotist. The process that is used in order to place the participant into hypnosis is known as hypnotic induction and will involve a series of suggestions and instructions that are used as a type of warm up. There are many different thoughts that are brought up by the experts as to what the definition of hypnosis is. The wide variety of these definitions comes from the fact that there are just so many different circumstances that come with hypnosis and no one person has the same experience when they are going through it. Some of the different definitions of hypnosis by experts include the following: 1. “A special case of psychological regression,” Michael Nash. 2. Ernest Hilgard and Janet Hilgard have written in great depth about hypnosis and describe it has a way for the body to dissociate from itself in another plane of consciousness. 3. Sarbin and Coe, two wellknown social psychologists, have use the term of role theory to describe hypnosis. Under this definition, the participant is playing the role of being hypnotized; they are acting like they are hypnotized rather than actually being in that state. 4. According to T.X. Barber, hypnosis is defined based on the different nonhypnotic behavioral parameters. Under this definition, the participant will define the task motivation and label the situation that they are in as hypnosis since they have no other thing to call it. 5. Weitzenhoffer wrote in some of his earlier writings about hypnosis. He conceptualized that hypnosis is a state of enhanced suggestibility. In more recent writings, he went on to define the act of hypnosis as “a form of influence by one person exerted on another through the medium or agency of suggestion. 6. Brenman and Gill used the psychoanalytic concept of “regression in the service of the ego,” to help describe what hypnosis was all about. Under this definition, the participant is willing to go under hypnosis and into the altered state because it helps out their ego and makes them to feel better. 7. According to Edmonston a person who has undergone hypnosis is simply in a deep state of relaxation. 8. Spiegel and Spiegel have stated that hypnosis is simply something that happens because of the biological capacity of the participant. 9. Erickson states that hypnosis is an altered, innerdirected, and special state of functioning. The participant is still able to function and is conscious of things around them, but they are in an altered state compared to their normal state. There are many different views and statements that have been made about hypnosis. Some people believe that hypnosis is very real and are paranoid that the government and others around them will try to control their minds. Others do not believe in hypnosis at all and think that it is just sleight of hand. Most likely, the idea of hypnosis as mind control falls somewhere in the middle. There are three stages of hypnosis that are recognized by the psychological community. These three stages include induction, suggestion, and susceptibility. Each of them is important to the hypnosis process and will be discussed further below. Induction The first stage of hypnosis is induction. Before the participant undergoes the full hypnosis, they will be introduced to the hypnotic induction technique. For many years this was thought to be the method used to put the subject into their hypnotic trance, but that definition has changed some in modern times. Some of the non-state theorists have seen this stage slightly differently. Instead they see this stage as the method to heighten the participants’ expectations of what is going to happen, defining the role that they will play, getting their attention to focus in the right direction, and any of the other steps that are needed in order to lead the participant into the right direction for hypnosis. There are several induction techniques that can be used during hypnosis. The most well-known and influential methods is Braid’s “eye fixation” technique or “Braidism.” There are quite a few variations of this approach including the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale (SHSS). This scale is the most used tool for research in the field of hypnosis. To use the Braid induction techniques you will have to follow a couple of steps. The first one is to take any object that you can find that is bright, such as a watch case, and hold it between the middle, fore, and thumb fingers on the left hand. You will want to hold this object about 8-15 inches from the eyes of the participant. Hold the object somewhere above the forehead so that it produces a lot of strain on the eyelids and eyes during the process so that the participant is able to maintain a fixed stare on the object at all times. The hypnotist must then explain to the participant that they should keep their eyes always fixed on to the object. The patient will also need to focus their mind completely on the idea of that particular object. They should not be allowed to think of other things or let their minds and eyes wander or else the process will not be successful. After a short time, the participant’s eyes will begin to dilate. With a little more time the participant will begin to assume a wavy motion. If the participant involuntarily closes their eyelids when the middle and fore fingers of the right hand are carried from the eyes to the object, then they are in the trance. If not, then the participant will need to begin again; make sure to let the participant know that they are to allow their eyes to close once the fingers are carried in a similar motion back towards the eyes again. This will get the patient to go into the altered state of mind that is known as hypnosis. While Braid stood by his own technique, he did acknowledge that using the induction technique of hypnosis is not always necessary for every case. In fact, researchers in modern times have usually found that the induction technique is not as important to the effects of hypnotic suggestion as previously thought. Over time, other alternatives and variations of the original hypnotic induction technique have been developed, although the Braid method is still considered the best. Suggestion The next stage of hypnosis is known as the suggestion stage. When hypnosis was first described by James Braid, the term of suggestion was not used. Instead, Braid referred to this stage as the act of having the conscious mind of the participant focus on one central and dominant idea. The way that Braid did this was to stimulate or reduce the physiological functioning of the different regions on the participant’s body. Later on, Braid began to place more and more emphasis on the use of different non-verbal and verbal forms of suggestion in order to get the participant into the hypnotic state of mind. These would include using “waking suggestions” as well as selfhypnosis. Another well-known hypnotist, Hippolyte Bernheim, continued to shift the emphasis of the physical state of the process of hypnosis over to the psychological process that contained verbal suggestions. According to Bernheim, hypnotism is the induction of a psychical condition that is peculiar and which will increase the susceptibility of the suggestion to the participant. Often, he stated, the hypnotic state that is induced will help to facilitate the suggestion, even though this might not be necessary to start the susceptibility in the first place. Modern hypnotism uses a lot of different suggestion forms in order to be successful such as metaphors, insinuations, indirect or non-verbal suggestions, direct verbal suggestions, and other figures of speech and suggestions that are non-verbal. Some of the non-verbal suggestions that may be used during the suggestion stage would include physical manipulation, voice tonality, and mental imagery. One of the distinctions that are made in the types of suggestion that can be offered to the participant includes those suggestions that are delivered with permission and those that are more authoritarian in manner. One of the things that have to be considered in regards to hypnosis is the difference between the unconscious and the conscious mind. There are several hypnotists who view the stage of suggestion as a way of communicating that is directed for the most part to the conscious mind of the subject. Others in the field will see it in the opposite direction; they see the communication occurring between the agent and the subconscious or unconscious mind. Proponents of the first class of thought included Bernheim, Braid, and other pioneers of the Victorian age. They believed that the suggestions were being addressed straight to the conscious part of the subjects mind, rather than to the unconscious part. In fact, Braid goes further and actually defines the act of hypnotism as the focused attention upon the suggestion or the dominant idea. The fear of most people that hypnotists will be able to get into their unconscious and make them do and think things beyond their control is simply impossible according to those who follow this train of thought. The nature of the mind has also been the determinant of the different conceptions about suggestion. Those who believed that the responses given are through the unconscious mind, such as in the case of Milton Erickson, bring up the cases of using indirect suggestions. Many of these indirect suggestions, such as stories or metaphors, will hide their intended meaning in order to conceal it from the conscious mind of the subject. Subliminal suggestion is a form of hypnosis that relies completely on the theory of the unconscious mind. If the unconscious mind were not being used in hypnosis, this kind of suggestion would not be possible. The differences between the two groups are fairly easy to recognize; those who believe that the suggestions will go primarily to the conscious mind will use direct verbal instructions and suggestions while those who believe the suggestions will go primarily to the unconscious mind will use stories and metaphors with hidden meanings. In either of these theories of thought, the participant will need to be able to focus on one object or idea. This allows them to be led in the direction that is needed in order to go into the hypnotic state. Once the suggestion stage has been completed successfully; the participant will then be able to move in to the third stage, susceptibility. Susceptibility Over time, it has been observed that people will react differently to hypnosis. Some people find that they are able to fall into a hypnotic trance fairly easily and do not have to put much effort into the process at all. Others may find that they are able to get into the hypnotic trance, but only after a prolonged period of time and with some effort. Still others will find that they are not able to get into the hypnotic trance and even after continued efforts will not reach their goals. One thing that researchers have found interesting about the susceptibility of different participants is that this factor remains constant. If you have been able to easily get into a hypnotic state of mind, you are likely to be the same way for the rest of your life. On the other hand, if you have always had difficulty in reaching the hypnotic state and have never been hypnotized, then it is likely that you never will. There have been several different models developed over time to try and determine the susceptibility of participants to hypnosis. Some of the older depth scales worked to infer which level of trance the participant was in through the observable signs that were available. These would include things such as the spontaneous amnesia. Some of the more modern scales work to measure the degree of self-evaluated or observed responsiveness to the specific suggestion tests that are given such as the direct suggestions of arm rigidity. According to the research that has been done by Deirdre Barrett, there are two types of subjects that are considered highly susceptible to the effects of hypnotism. These two groups include dissociaters and fantasizers. The fantasizers will score high on the absorption scales, will be able to easily block out the stimuli of the real world without the use of hypnosis, spend a lot of their time daydreaming, had imaginary friends when they were a child, and also grew up in an environment where imaginary play was encouraged. On the other side of things are the dissociaters. This group will often come from a background of trauma or childhood abuse, found ways to forget the unpleasant events that are in their past, and can escape into a numbness. If a person in this group does daydream, it is more in the terms of going blank instead of creating fantasies. Both of these groups scored high on the tests of hypnotic susceptibility. The two groups that have the highest rates of hypnotizability include those suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder and dissociative identity disorder. Applications Hypnosis as a field and as an idea has been around for a long time. Due to this, various applications have begun to emerge that help to put the process of hypnosis to good use. In fact, the various applications of using hypnosis cross many fields such as entertainment, self-improvement, military uses, and medical uses. Other areas that have recently begun to use hypnotism include rehabilitation, physical therapy, education, sports, and forensics. Even artists have begun to employ hypnotism in order to reach certain creative purposes. This is shown the most by Andre Breton, a surrealist artist, who has employed hypnosis among other techniques for his own creative purposes. One of the growing uses of hypnosis is in the field of self-improvement; many people have chosen to do self-hypnosis in order to help them lose weight, reduce stress, and quit smoking. The following sections will discuss some different fields where hypnosis has been growing as well as how the process of hypnosis is working in those fields. Hypnotherapy Hypnotherapy is the use of hypnosis as a form of psychotherapy. It is used as a method to help the patient or subject through troubling issues that are plaguing them, especially when other methods of self-control are not effective. Licensed psychologists and physicians might perform a form of hypnotherapy on willing patients in order to help them treat posttraumatic stress, compulsive gambling, sleep disorders, eating disorders, anxiety, and depression. It is also possible to visit with a certified hypnotherapist to assist you in treating issues such as weight management and the cessation of smoking. If you go to a certified hypnotherapist, it is important to remember that they are not psychologists or physicians so they will just be able to assist you with reaching the hypnotic state and not with curing your more serious ailments. It is best that you make sure whoever you are working with has been certified to provide you with these services, whether you choose a hypnotherapist or a physician. The process of hypnotherapy has been seen in many different forms in modern history. All of them have had varying degrees of success depending on the issue faced and the participants. Some of the forms that have been used include: Cognitive-behavioral hypnotherapy—this is a combination of clinical hypnosis along with different elements of the Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy. Hypnoanalysis—this is also known as age regression hypnotherapy. Hypnosis to assist with dealing with phobias and fears. Ericksonian hypnotherapy. Hypnotherapy to assist with addictions. Hypnotherapy to assist with habit control. Hypnotherapy to assist with pain management in those who suffer from chronic pain. Hypnotherapy to assist in the psychological therapy the patient is already dealing with. Hypnotherapy to assist with relaxation. Hypnotherapy to assist with skin diseases. Hypnotherapy to assist with soothing patients who are anxious about undergoing surgery. Hypnotherapy to assist with the performance of athletes before a competition. Hypnotherapy to assist with weight loss. Military Applications In addition to assisting people who deal with various health issues and addiction, people have long wondered if hypnosis has been used by military and governmental officials in order to change the way citizens think about things. So far, there has been little proof that the American military is capable or has used hypnosis to reach their goals. In fact, a declassified document that was obtained out of the Freedom of Information Act archive recently shows that the process of hypnosis has been investigated for the use in military applications. Despite the research that has been done, the study concluded that there really wasn’t any evidence that the process of hypnosis would be useful in a military application. In addition, there was not any evidence that clearly showed that hypnosis actually exists in regards as an actual phenomenon outside of subject expectancy, high motivation, and ordinary suggestion. The document further goes on to explain how it would be nearly impossible for hypnosis to be used in a military application. It states: “The use of hypnosis in intelligence would present certain technical problems not encountered in the clinic or laboratory. To obtain compliance from a resistant source, for example, it would be necessary to hypnotize the source under essentially hostile circumstances. There is no good evidence, clinical or experimental, that this can be done.” The document goes on to explain that it has been difficult to study the effects and application of hypnosis to be used in the military because no one is able to say with certainty whether hypnosis is a unique state with some conditioned responses or just a form of suggestion that has been induced as a result of the positive relationship between the subject and the hypnotist. Self-hypnosis There are some instances, such as when a certified hypnotherapist or other professional is not available, when you may decide to use the process of selfhypnosis. This process occurs when a person is able to hypnotize themselves, often using the tactic of autosuggestion. The primary use for this technique is for self-improvement and many people will perform it in order to reduce their stress levels, quit smoking, or to get the motivation they need to go on a diet. While some people may be able to self-hypnotize themselves, many find that they need some sort of assistance in reaching the altered state. This could include hypnotic recordings or even mind machine devices to help them reach that state. Other areas that you could use self-hypnosis for include your overall physical well-being, to relax, and to get over stage fright. Stage Hypnosis When most people think of hypnosis, they think of stage hypnosis. This is a form of entertainment that will occur in a theatre or a club in front of an audience. The hypnotist is often shown as a great showman and this helps to encourage the idea that hypnosis is completely about mind control. In the beginning of the act, the hypnotist will attempt to put the whole audience under the altered state before selecting certain individuals who meet the criteria to come up on the stage and go through different embarrassing acts while the rest of the group watches. It is unknown why stage hypnosis is so effective although it is commonly thought to be a combination of trickery, stagecraft, physical manipulation, suggestibility, participant selection, and psychological factors. For the most part, experts believe that the participant is just playing along in a way with the hypnotist and providing a good show. These individuals may be willing to do this because they desire to be in the middle of all the attention, the pressure to please others, and the excuse to go against their own suppressors of fear make it easy to get the participants to perform. Some of the books that have been written by former stage hypnotists reinforce the idea of trickery and deception and some are entirely composed of fake hypnosis where private whispers where used the whole time. Types of Hypnosis There are a lot of different types of hypnosis that the subject will be able to undergo. Each of them will work in slightly different ways and some of them work to help with various issues. Some may be more fit to helping the subject to relax while others can help more with weight loss or pain management. This section will talk in more detail about the different types of hypnosis that are available. Traditional Hypnosis The most common type of hypnosis that is used is known as traditional hypnosis. During this process, the agent is simply making suggestions directly to the subject’s unconscious mind. This type of hypnosis will work the best on a subject who is known for accepting the things that they are told and they do not ask a lot of questions. If you go and visit a certified hypnotist or purchase a tape to do the process of self-hypnosis, you will be going through the process of traditional hypnosis. The reason that this type of hypnosis is so popular is because it does not take that much experience or training to learn how to do. The hypnotist is just going to have to write a simple script and tell the subject what to do. While this technique will work very well on those who accept what is going on around them, it is ineffective for those who think critically and analytically. Ericksonian Hypnosis The next type of hypnosis to be discussed is Ericksonian Hypnosis. This one is a little more in depth because it is going to require the use of metaphors and little stories. These are used in order to present the ideas and suggestions that are required to the unconscious mind. Even though this method will require a little more experience and training to do, it is a very effective and powerful method to use. The reason that it works so well is because it is able to eliminate the resistance and blockage that the subject may have to the suggestions. There are two main types of metaphors that will often be used in this kind of hypnosis; isomorphic and interspersal. For the metaphor that is interspersal in nature, the command that is explained has been imbedded into the story and would not be easily discovered by the subject outside of their unconscious mind. The other type, isomorphic metaphor, is a little more common and offers directions to the unconscious mind simply by presenting a story to the subject that will offer a moral at the end. The unconscious mind will be able to draw a one to one relationship connecting the elements that come from the story and the elements that come with the behavior or problem situation. An example of an isomorphic metaphor is the story “Boy Who Cried Wolf.” Many parents will use this story to teach their children about lying, especially if their child tells a lot of lies. After hearing the story, the unconscious mind of the subject would see a parallel between the telling of lies and the boy who is in the story. They would see that telling lies might lead to a disaster and the child might be more willing to stop lying in the process in order to prevent that disaster from occurring. Embedded Technique Another type of hypnosis is called the embedded technique. During this process, the hypnotist will tell the subject an interesting story. This story is meant to help distract and engage the conscious mind of the subject. It will also contain indirect suggestions that are hidden within the story but which will be accepted into the unconscious mind of the subject. Through this story the hypnotist will use process instructions in order to direct the unconscious mind of the subject to find the memory that is needed. This memory is usually about learning experience that is appropriate from the past. The hypnotist will then be able to apply that learning experience to help them to make changes to their present. Nero-Linguistic Programming With Neuro-Linguistic Programming, or NLP, hypnotists have a great selection of the methods that they are able to use in the hypnosis process. When using the process of NLP, the hypnotist will be able to use the same thought patterns that are creating the problem in the subject. This can save a lot of time compared to going through the process of suggestion. For example, the thought patterns that are used with stress or excessive appetite will be used to help eliminate the problem that the subject is dealing with. If used with a certified hypnotist or psychologist, NLP has been shown to be very effective. There are many different types of NLP programming that have been utilized by hypnotists. Some of the most commonly used forms of NLP include NLP Anchoring, NLP Flash, and NLP Reframe. NLP Anchoring The first type of NLP that will be discussed is NLP Anchoring. A good way to think about how anchoring works is thinking about an old song that you know. Have you ever sat in a car and heard a song that you have not heard in a long time? Did that song trigger some sort of feeling in you that came from the past? The first time you heard that song, or sometime down the road when you heard it, you were going through these feelings and the unconscious mind attached these feelings to that particular song. Through this process, the song would become the anchor for these feelings. Now, each time that you hear this particular song, you will trigger the brain to have these feelings all over again. This is a good example of anchoring. Many hypnotists have found that anchoring is a useful technique for them to use in hypnotizing their subjects. For example, if you have a memory of being rewarded for doing something right in the past, the hypnotist will be able to get into that particular memory and help you to recreate the feelings that you were going through at the time. At the same time, the hypnotist will have you do some sort of action, such as touching your two fingers together during the recreation of the process. Now each time that you touch your fingers together, you will be able to feel those same happy feelings again. The process of anchoring can work in order to motivate you to accomplish something by associating good feelings with it. For example, this method is often used to help people find the motivation they need to stick to losing weight and maintaining a diet. The hypnotist will work with the subject to create a positive anchor that is associated with the mental image of the subject—in this case it will be the subject thinking about themselves in a thin and sexy body. When the subject pictures this image again, they will trigger the anchor and get the positive motivation that they need. In fact, there is a dramatic increase in the motivation for weight loss in those who undergo hypnosis compared to those who do not. The process of anchoring can be used in a variety of different instances to assist in self-improvement of the individual. NLP Flash NLP Flash is another form of hypnosis that is considered to be extremely powerful and only done by a certified professional. It is often used in order to change thoughts and feelings around in the unconscious mind of the subject. It can be a good way to help those who feel chronic stress or are addicted to a substance. In this process, the hypnotist will switch the feelings of the subject around, instead of a certain act bringing pleasure, that act will start to bring pain or instead of a certain act bringing stress, it will bring the subject relaxation. For example, someone who is addicted to a substance, such as cigarettes or alcohol, will find a feeling of pleasure and happiness when they consume that substance. Through the technique of NLP flash, these feelings will get switched around resulting in the subject feeling discomfort or pain when they consume the substance. This can help them to get over their addiction more effectively. Those who are undergoing a lot of stress have also found the technique of NLP Flash to work well for them. When a person is feeling chronic stress, they may have difficulties in controlling their blood pressure and their tempers and are going to feel uncomfortable a lot of the time. Since stress is so hard on the body, there are many patients willing to undergo the NLP Flash hypnosis in order to assist them in relaxing. With this technique, the subject will learn their triggers of stress and redirect them so that those triggers start to release feelings of relaxation in their minds instead. This technique has also been shown to be effective in extinguishing the conditioned responses in the mind of the subject. An example of this is with smoking. If you are a smoker that enjoys a cigarette while having a cup of coffee in the morning, your unconscious brain is going to start pairing these two behaviors together. This means that the subject will get a craving to have a cigarette anytime they enjoy a cup of coffee, especially in the morning. When the subject goes through the NLP Flash technique, they will learn how to dissociate the two events from each other. This allows the smoker to have a cup of coffee without also getting the urge to smoke at the same time. This makes it an even more effective technique to use when trying to stop smoking. NLP Reframe The third form of NLP that has been used in hypnosis is known as NLP Reframe. This technique is really potent because it works so well in assisting the subject to change the way that they behave. To do this process, the hypnotist must understand that there is a secondary gain, or a positive outcome, that is accomplished by each of the behaviors that a person accomplishes. The outcome that occurs from the behavior is important since that is the reason the subject is acting in the first place. Despite the importance of the outcome, the behavior that is chosen to accomplish the outcome is really not that important. During the process of reframe, the hypnotist works to negotiate and reason with the unconscious mind of the subject. The goal is to get it to take over the responsibility for making the subject substitute in some new behavior that is available and effective at accomplishing the required secondary gain. While this is all going on in the subconscious, the new behavior will be more acceptable to the subject in their conscious mind. For example, if the person is in the habit of eating when they are sad in order to make themselves feel better, the hypnotist is going to perform this method to teach the unconscious to do some other activity. The act of eating might be replaced with exercise or reading a nice book, helping the subject to lose weight, eat healthier and feel better all around. Video Hypnosis While the other forms of hypnosis have been extremely popular in assisting subjects to overcome obstacles and change the way that they think in order to live better lives, new forms of hypnosis are always being developed. One of the newest forms of hypnotherapy that has been developed is video hypnosis. This form is offered through commercial means so that people are able to purchase them and use at their own convenience. The techniques that are used in some of the brands of video hypnosis are also based on the Neuro-Linguistic Programming technology that was discussed earlier. This means that the video hypnosis technique will work based on utilizing the existing thought processes that the subject has rather than using hypnotic suggestion like traditional methods. The reason why video hypnosis has grown so rapidly is that more than 70% of people have found that they learn things easier and more quickly when they see things compared to when they only hear the information. The subject’s mind will learn to change the feelings that it is having as well as its visual associations automatically on the conscious level while watching the visual movies that are presented. While there are many different kinds of video hypnosis programs that are available, Neuro-VISION is one of the most popular because it has been developed using some of the best techniques in the industry. This type of video method works to train the unconscious mind of the subject through digital optics, which is a high tech simulation process on the computer. This will free the subject of their tensions, urges, and compulsions. Through this process, the smoker will find that stopping smoking is easy, the dieter will lose their appetite, and those who feel stress will begin to relax more. It will often take at least a few sessions of video hypnosis to see results, although there are those who find that just one viewing will start to show some of the results that they want. Subliminal Hypnosis The final type of hypnosis that will be discussed in this chapter is subliminal hypnosis. Often the subliminal hypnosis messages will be placed on a recording for the subject to listen to. The recording will have two tracks and each one will talk to a different part of the mind. One track will contain a cover sound that will be heard through the conscious mind of the subject. The cover sound is often something that is easy for the brain to listen to such as nature sounds or music. The other track will contain direct suggestions that will be heard through the unconscious mind of the subject. These suggestions present on the second track will be repeated over and over throughout the whole session. Subliminal programs have the ability to be played at any time and in any place. You could be listening to these messages while you are working or even while watching TV. The best part is you will not have to stop the task that you are doing and sit down and relax like what is required with NLP or traditional hypnosis. In some cases, subliminal programs will be added to your regular hypnotic programs. The use of subliminal programming is not that prevalent. Most people will not choose this method to change their habits and behaviors. Research has shown that subliminal programs are not really that effective and so they will not be able to replace NLP or hypnosis. By some accounts, it could take more than 80 hours of listening to the subliminal message before it has an effect and many times even that will not be enough for most people. According to Joel Weinberger, a professor at the Adelphi University and a psychologist, regular audio subliminal tapes that can be purchased at stores or online just do not work. Subliminal psychodynamics may work as long as there is some form of visuals present. The popular options available only contain auditory components. The auditory is not enough to make this method work on its’ own. Subliminal suggestion will need to be paired with other forms of hypnotherapy in order to have the effectiveness that is desired. Despite the portrayal of hypnosis by the media, it is not an evil plot that is meant to take over the minds of unwilling subjects. In fact, if the subject is not willing to undergo hypnosis, it is pretty much impossible to get them to go into the altered state. Often, the use of hypnosis is to help others improve their lives. This could be in the form of weight management, stopping smoking, improving other health conditions, and assisting with chronic pain management. Each of the techniques is also important in helping the subject to get to their overall goal. While all of them can be effective, the professional that you choose to work with as well as the issue at hand will be used to determine which of these methods will best fit your needs and assist in improving your life. Chapter 4: Manipulation Brainwashing and hypnosis are the two forms of mind control that easily come to mind. While these two are important to understanding the functioning of mind control and how it all works, they are not the only options that are available. In fact, there are others that can be used and are often more effective in the short term than either brainwashing or hypnosis. These particular tactics are ones that can be used in everyday situations, for example like in normal conversations a person may have with others. While it is not likely that a person will be manipulated or persuaded to change major beliefs through normal conversations, they can be convinced to change little things such as being persuaded to purchase cookies from a local girl scout or to vote a certain way in an election. The main thing to remember about the next three forms of mind control is that they are more likely to occur in a persons’ daily life with the people that they know and trust. Obviously, a person is not going to put thei